PALLETIZATION

Please find attached the diagrams of palletization of Shark products.

SAE VISCOSITY

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has provided standards to deal with engine lubricant oil viscosity, through the SAE J300 table. This classification divides the lubricant into two categories according to their flow characteristics, namely:

• Oils suitable for cold climates or winter seasons. The lubricants in this category are designated by the letter "W" (short for winter = winter). The degree W (W = winter) indicates the maximum value of viscosity that allows starting at a given temperature.

• Suitable oils to hot climates or summer seasons, identified only by a number. The degree normal fixed interval viscosity measured at 100 °C.

It is obvious that: to the first category belong the oils more "fluid" and the second more "viscous" oils. A multigrade oil will be a “combination” of the two viscosimetric characteristics and will show good properties both at cold and at hot. The use of multigrade lubricant is nowadays consolidated.

Starting from April 2013 is in force the new table SAE J300 which classifies the viscosity of engine oils. Compared to the previous version dated January 2009, SAE J300 introduces the new SAE grade 16 in order to continue the path of reduction of high temperature viscosity invoked by leading OEMs to meet increasingly stringent fuel economy requirements. The main aspects of the new grade SAE 16 are:

• Viscosity at 100 ° C between 6.1 and 8.2 cSt, partially superimposed on the SAE 20 degree (first time in the history of the classification)

• HTHS at 150 °C: > 2.3 cP

• New grade called SAE 16 degrees to avoid confusion with "W" - opens the way to possible future grades (maybe SAE 12, SAE 8?)

Please see table A.

From it we see that for the gradations marked with the letter "W" is fixed a maximum viscosity at different reference temperatures corresponding to those of employment of the individual grades. They are also set maximum temperature within which the oil must be pumped to ensure sufficient lubrication of the engine at cold and minimum limits of viscosity at 100 °C to ensure an adequate carrier power to the veil of the lubricant at hot. The gradations for use at high temperatures are distinct between them by intervals of viscosity measured at 100 °C as well as from a minimum value of viscosity under high shear stress detected at 150 °C (HTHS). For transmission oil viscosity SAE has provided table SAE J306.

Please see table B.

Download file

ISO VISCOSITY

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) issued the standard "Liquid Industrial Lubricants - Rank viscosity ISO 3448 -1975 (E)”, which provides a defined set of kinematic viscosity ranges for industrial lubricants. This rule is based on a common reference to lubricant manufacturers, machinery manufacturers and users, and for the designation and selection of lubricants according to their viscosity. The numbers that distinguish the various gradations ISO approximates the average value in the range of viscosity, expressed in centi Stokes (cSt) at a temperature of 40 °C. The classification does not apply to oils for engines and transmissions that are identified by the SAE charts.

Download file

CLASSIFICATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS

The rankings and performance specifications are based mainly on tests with engines installed on the test bench. Each test checks specific quality of the oil to prevent phenomena: deposits on pistons, rings sticking, sludge, polishing of the cylinder, wear, etc. They have a shorter duration compared to the normal use of the field but the working conditions are more severe: tests are then developed to solicit the lubricant much more normal use.

In the past there was very important the API charts (American Petroleum Institute) and still represents the reference to the global level. In 1980 came into force the CCMC (Committee of Manufacturers of the Common Market, MEC) which then in 1997 has been replaced by the ACEA (Association of European Motor Vehicle Manufacturers), which is now the benchmark for the European market. The ACEA specifications represent the required "minimum" in terms of performance on the part of European Manufacturers. This means that some of them can go in requiring the successful completion of tests further stringent, typical of individual manufacturer. Mercedes, BMW, Volkswagen, Porsche, Volvo, Man are some of these.

API SPECIFICATIONS

The API engine lubricant divides into two categories, distinguishing oils for gasoline engines from those intended for commercial vehicles (mainly diesel direct injection):

S = service

C = commercial

Both the letter "S" and the letter "C" is followed a second letter of the alphabet (from "A" and above) to which correspond well certain characteristics or performance of the lubricant which identifies the progressive changes required by the evolution of engines (also determined by stringent anti-pollution regulations).

These performances are defined by successful completion of laboratory and engine tests developed by the API in conjunction with SAE and ASTM standards.

The API certification mark, also known as the “STARBURST”, meets the current engine protection standard and fuel economy requirements of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC), a joint effort of U.S. and Japanese automobile manufacturers. Appendix A

The API service symbol is also known as the “DONUT”: Appendix B

The rankings API, according to the current split are:

Obsolete: SA, SB, SC, SD, SE, SF, SG, SH.

Current: SJ, SL, SM, SN.

Leading: SN. “Introduced in October 2010 for 2011 and older vehicles, designed to provide improved high temperature deposit protection for pistons, more stringent sludge control, and seal compatibility. API SN with Resource Conserving matches ILSAC GF-5 by combining API SN performance with improved fuel economy, turbocharger protection, emission control system compatibility, and protection of engines operating on ethanol-containing fuels up to E85”.

 

Obsolete: CA, CB, CC, CD, CE, CF-4, CG-4.

Current: CH-4, CI-4, CJ-4.

Leading: CJ-4. “For high-speed four-stroke cycle diesel engines designed to meet 2010 model year on-highway and Tier 4 non-road exhaust emission standards as well as for previous model year diesel engines. These oils are formulated for use in all applications with diesel fuels ranging in sulphur content up to 500 ppm (0.05% by weight). However, the use of these oils with greater than 15 ppm (0.0015% by weight) sulphur fuel may impact exhaust after-treatment system durability and/or drain interval. CJ-4 oils are especially effective at sustaining emission control system durability where particulate filters and other advanced after-treatment systems are used. Optimum protection is provided for control of catalyst poisoning, particulate filter blocking, engine wear, piston deposits, low- and high-temperature stability, soot handling properties, oxidative thickening, foaming, and viscosity loss due to shear. API CJ-4 oils exceed the performance criteria of API CI-4 with CI-4 PLUS, CI-4, CH-4, CG-4 and CF-4 and can effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories. When using CJ-4 oil with higher than 15 ppm sulphur fuel, consult the engine manufacturer for service interval”.

ACEA SPECIFICATIONS

They are part of the ACEA major European manufacturers, together with Ford Europe and General Motors Europe. The use of the term ACEA communications to the consumer, may only and exclusively for manufacturers of lubricants: engine oils developed in accordance with the system EELQMS (European Engine Lubricants Quality), performing the tests in accredited laboratories UNI EN 45001 - ISO 9001, produce lubricants in ISO 9002 certified facilities. Since 11/2004 have combined classes A and B into a single category A/B. it was introduced the C class (which implements the new engines, both diesel and gasoline systems with exhaust gas after-treatment) and was become more severe the E specification for heavy vehicles.

A/B: gasoline and diesel engine oils

A1/B1: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use at extended drain intervals in gasoline engines and car & light van diesel engines specifically designed to be capable of using low friction low viscosity oils with a high temperature/high shear rate viscosity of 2.6 mPa*s for xW/20 and 2.9 to 3.5 mPa s for all other viscosity grades. These oils are unsuitable for use in some engines”.

A3/B3: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use in high performance gasoline engines and car & light van diesel engines and/or for extended drain intervals where specified by the engine manufacturer, and/or for year-round use of low viscosity oils, and/or for severe operating conditions as defined by the engine manufacturer”.

A3/B4: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use in high performance gasoline and direct injection diesel engines, but also suitable for applications described under A3/B3”.

A5/B5: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use at extended drain intervals in high performance gasoline engines and car & light van diesel engines designed to be capable of using low friction low viscosity oils with a High temperature/High shear rate (HTHS) viscosity of 2.9 to 3.5 mPa s. These oils are unsuitable for use in some engines”.

C: Catalyst compatibility oils

C1: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use as catalyst compatible oil in vehicles with DPF and TWC in high performance car and light van diesel and gasoline engines requiring low friction, low viscosity, low SAPS oils with a minimum HTHS viscosity of 2.9 mPa s. These oils will increase the DPF and TWC life and maintain the vehicles fuel economy”.

C2: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use as catalyst compatible oil in vehicles with DPF and TWC in high performance car and light van diesel and gasoline engines designed to be capable of using low friction, low viscosity oils with a minimum HTHS viscosity of 2.9mPa s. These oils will increase the DPF and TWC life and maintain the vehicles fuel economy”.

C3: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use as catalyst compatible oil in vehicles with DPF and TWC in high performance car and light van diesel and gasoline engines, with a minimum HTHS viscosity of 3.5mPa.s. These oils will increase the DPF and TWC life”.

C4: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use as catalyst compatible oil in vehicles with DPF and TWC in high performance car and light van diesel and gasoline engines requiring low SAPS oil with a minimum HTHS viscosity of 3.5mPa s. These oils will increase the DPF and TWC life”.

E: Heavy Duty Diesel engine oils

E4: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of piston cleanliness, wear, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under very severe conditions, e.g. significantly extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for engines without particulate filters, and for some EGR engines and some engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems”.

E6: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of piston cleanliness, wear, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under very severe conditions, e.g. significantly extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for EGR engines, with or without particulate filters, and for engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. E6 quality is strongly recommended for engines fitted with particulate filters and is designed for use in combination with low sulphur diesel fuel”.

E7: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to piston cleanliness and bore polishing. It further provides excellent wear control, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under severe conditions, e.g. extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for engines without particulate filters, and for most EGR engines and most engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems”.

E9: “Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to piston cleanliness and bore polishing. It further provides excellent wear control, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under severe conditions, e.g. extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for engines with or without particulate filters, and for most EGR engines and for most engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. E9 is strongly recommended for engines fitted with particulate filters and is designed for use in combination with low sulphur diesel fuel”.

ACRONYMS

A.S.T.M. = American Society for Testing and Materials

A.T.F. = Automatic Transmission Fluid

C.C.S. = Cold Cranking Simulator

D.P.F. = Diesel Particulate Filter

F.E. = Fuel Economy

H.T.H.S. = High Temperature High Shear

H.V.I. = High Viscosity Index

P.A.O. = Poli Alfa Olefine

P.I.B. = Poly Iso Butene

P.P.D. = Pour Point Depressant

P.T.F. = Power Transmission Fluid

S.A.P.S. = Sulphated Ashes Phosphorus Sulphur

S.H.P.D.O. = Super High Performance Diesel Oil

S.T.O.U. = Super Tractor Oil Universal

T.A.S.A. = Type “A” Suffix “A”

U.H.P.D.O. = Ultra High Performance Diesel Oil

U.T.T.O. = Universal Tractor Transmission Oil

V.I. = Viscosity Index

Z.D.D.P. = Zinc Dialkyl Dithio-Phosphate